Drug That Interact With Alcohol And Their Potential Effects When Taken Together

Drugs of different categories that may interact with alcohol
Drugs

Alcohol is not a poisonous compound when consumed in moderate amount. However, moderate consumption can become dangerous and deadly when it is combined with certain medications.

These medications can be over the counter (O.T.C) or prescription-only medicine (P.O.M). Therefore, what can possibly happen even in the moderate amount of alcohol combined with some medications.

Interaction is a situation whereby two or more substances interact with one another. Therefore, drug interaction occurs when one or more drugs interact with each other or with other substances. In this case, it is alcohol.

Ways Of Interaction

The interaction can be one of the following ways

  1. The interaction does increase the effect of the drug
  2. Reduce the effect of the drug
  3. Make it toxic



Note: Interactions with same drug and same amount of alcohol consumption can vary depending on other factors like

  1. Elderly
  2. Patients with impaired renal or liver function
  3. A drunkard will be more likely to have interaction than others

Levels Of Interaction Of Alcohol With Drug

There are two levels of interactions, which are:
  1. Major: Highly clinically significant. Avoid combination. The risk of interaction far outweigh the benefit
  2. Minor: Minimally clinically significant. Minimal risk. Assess risk and consider an alternative drug. Steps can be taken to circumvent the interactions. Consider a monitoring plan.

How Does It Happen

This is divided into:
  1. A single drink or several drinks over several hours may compete with metabolising enzymes with a drug. This increases the drug availability which further increases the risk of side effects
  2. Long-term alcohol ingestion may activate drug metabolism enzymes. This reduces the active drugs that are available.
  3. Activated enzymes transform some drugs into toxic chemicals which can damage organs
  4. Alcohol can magnify the inhibitory effects of sedative and narcotic drugs at their sites of action in the brain.

General Effects Of Interaction

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Blood pressure
  • Abnormal behavior
  • Loss of coordination
  • Accident complication
  • Liver damage
  • Heart problem
  • Internal bleeding
  • Impaired breathing
  • Depression
    Positive and negative effects of alcohol with drugs
    Alcohol

List of Drugs That Interact With Alcohol And There Likely Effects

Acetazolamide
enhanced hypotensive effect
Amiloride
enhanced hypotensive effect
Amitriptyline
* enhanced sedative effect
Amlodipine
enhanced hypotensive effect
Atenolol
enhanced hypotensive effect
Carbamazepine
possibly enhanced Central Nervous System (C.N.S) adverse effects of Carbamazepine
Chlorpheniramine
enhanced sedative effect
Chlorpromazine
enhanced sedative effect
Clomipramine
* enhanced sedative effect
Codeine
enhanced hypotensive and sedative effect
Cycloserine
*increased risk of convulsions
Diazepam
enhanced sedative effect
Enalapril
enhanced hypotensive effect
Fluoxetine
possibly increased sedation
Fluphenazine
enhanced sedative effect
Furosemide
enhanced hypotensive effect
Glibenclamide
enhanced hypoglycemic effect
Glyceryl trinitrate
enhanced hypotensive effect
Griseofulvin
possibly enhanced effects of alcohol
Haloperidol
enhanced sedative effect

Read Also: The Reason Why Drug Manufacturers Produce Bitter Tasting Drugs


Hydralazine
enhanced hypotensive effect
Hydrochlorothiazide
enhanced hypotensive effect
Insulins
enhanced hypoglycemic effect
Isosorbide dinitrate
enhanced hypotensive effect
Levamisole
possibility of disulfiram-like reaction
Metformin
hypoglycemic effect, increased risk of lactic acidosis
Methadone
enhanced hypotensive and sedative effects
Methyldopa
enhanced hypotensive effect
Metronidazole
disulfiram-like reaction
Morphine
hypotensive and sedative effects
Nifedipine
enhanced hypotensive effect
Phenobarbital
enhanced sedative effect
Phenytoin
plasma phenytoin concentration reduced with regular large amounts of Alcohol
Procarbazine
disulfiram-like reaction
Promethazine
enhanced sedative effect
Propranolol
enhanced hypotensive effect
Sodium nitroprusside
enhanced hypotensive effect
Spironolactone
enhanced hypotensive effect
Timolol
enhanced hypotensive effect
Verapamil
enhanced hypotensive effect, plasma concentration of alcohol possibly increased by verapamil
Warfarin
*enhanced anticoagulant effect with large amounts of alcohol; major changes in alcohol consumption may affect anticoagulant control

Note: * indicates a potentially hazardous interaction

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